Download and read online Why Stock Markets Crash in PDF and EPUB The scientific study of complex systems has transformed a wide range of disciplines in recent years, enabling researchers in both the natural and social sciences to model and predict phenomena as diverse as earthquakes, global warming, demographic patterns, financial crises, and the failure of materials. In this book, Didier Sornette boldly applies his varied experience in these areas to propose a simple, powerful, and general theory of how, why, and when stock markets crash. Most attempts to explain market failures seek to pinpoint triggering mechanisms that occur hours, days, or weeks before the collapse. Sornette proposes a radically different view: the underlying cause can be sought months and even years before the abrupt, catastrophic event in the build-up of cooperative speculation, which often translates into an accelerating rise of the market price, otherwise known as a "bubble." Anchoring his sophisticated, step-by-step analysis in leading-edge physical and statistical modeling techniques, he unearths remarkable insights and some predictions--among them, that the "end of the growth era" will occur around 2050. Sornette probes major historical precedents, from the decades-long "tulip mania" in the Netherlands that wilted suddenly in 1637 to the South Sea Bubble that ended with the first huge market crash in England in 1720, to the Great Crash of October 1929 and Black Monday in 1987, to cite just a few. He concludes that most explanations other than cooperative self-organization fail to account for the subtle bubbles by which the markets lay the groundwork for catastrophe. Any investor or investment professional who seeks a genuine understanding of looming financial disasters should read this book. Physicists, geologists, biologists, economists, and others will welcome Why Stock Markets Crash as a highly original "scientific tale," as Sornette aptly puts it, of the exciting and sometimes fearsome--but no longer quite so unfathomable--world of stock markets.
Download and read online Theory of Zipf s Law and Beyond in PDF and EPUB Zipf’s law is one of the few quantitative reproducible regularities found in e- nomics. It states that, for most countries, the size distributions of cities and of rms (with additional examples found in many other scienti c elds) are power laws with a speci c exponent: the number of cities and rms with a size greater thanS is inversely proportional toS. Most explanations start with Gibrat’s law of proportional growth but need to incorporate additional constraints and ingredients introducing deviations from it. Here, we present a general theoretical derivation of Zipf’s law, providing a synthesis and extension of previous approaches. First, we show that combining Gibrat’s law at all rm levels with random processes of rm’s births and deaths yield Zipf’s law under a “balance” condition between a rm’s growth and death rate. We nd that Gibrat’s law of proportionate growth does not need to be strictly satis ed. As long as the volatility of rms’ sizes increase asy- totically proportionally to the size of the rm and that the instantaneous growth rate increases not faster than the volatility, the distribution of rm sizes follows Zipf’s law. This suggests that the occurrence of very large rms in the distri- tion of rm sizes described by Zipf’s law is more a consequence of random growth than systematic returns: in particular, for large rms, volatility must dominate over the instantaneous growth rate.
Download and read online Long Short Market Dynamics in PDF and EPUB Hedge funds are now the largest volume players in the capital markets. They follow a wide assortment of strategies but their activities have replaced and overshadowed the traditional model of the long only portfolio manager. Many of the traditional technical indicators and commonly accepted trading strategies have become obsolete or ineffective. The focus throughout the book is to describe the principal innovations that have been made within the equity markets over the last several years and that have changed the ground rules for trading activities. By understanding these changes the active trader is far better equipped to profit in today’s more complex and risky markets. Long/Short Market Dynamics includes: A completely new technique, Comparative Quantiles Analysis, for identifying market turning points is introduced. It is based on statistical techniques that can be used to recognize money flow and price/momentum divergences that can provide substantial profit opportunities. Power laws, regime shifts, self-organized criticality, phase transitions, network dynamics, econophysics, algorithmic trading and other ideas from the science of complexity are examined. All are described as concretely as possible and avoiding unnecessary mathematics and formalism. Alpha generation, portfolio construction, hedge ratios, and beta neutral portfolios are illustrated with case studies and worked examples. Episodes of financial contagion are illustrated with a proposed explanation of their origins within underlying market dynamics
Download and read online Complex Economics in PDF and EPUB The economic crisis is also a crisis for economic theory. Most analyses of the evolution of the crisis invoke three themes, contagion, networks and trust, yet none of these play a major role in standard macroeconomic models. What is needed is a theory in which these aspects are central. The direct interaction between individuals, firms and banks does not simply produce imperfections in the functioning of the economy but is the very basis of the functioning of a modern economy. This book suggests a way of analysing the economy which takes this point of view. The economy should be considered as a complex adaptive system in which the agents constantly react to, influence and are influenced by, the other individuals in the economy. In such systems which are familiar from statistical physics and biology for example, the behaviour of the aggregate cannot be deduced from the behaviour of the average, or "representative" individual. Just as the organised activity of an ants’ nest cannot be understood from the behaviour of a "representative ant" so macroeconomic phenomena should not be assimilated to those associated with the "representative agent". This book provides examples where this can clearly be seen. The examples range from Schelling’s model of segregation, to contributions to public goods, the evolution of buyer seller relations in fish markets, to financial models based on the foraging behaviour of ants. The message of the book is that coordination rather than efficiency is the central problem in economics. How do the myriads of individual choices and decisions come to be coordinated? How does the economy or a market, "self organise" and how does this sometimes result in major upheavals, or to use the phrase from physics, "phase transitions"? The sort of system described in this book is not in equilibrium in the standard sense, it is constantly changing and moving from state to state and its very structure is always being modified. The economy is not a ship sailing on a well-defined trajectory which occasionally gets knocked off course. It is more like the slime described in the book "emergence", constantly reorganising itself so as to slide collectively in directions which are neither understood nor necessarily desired by its components.
Download and read online Econophysics and Physical Economics in PDF and EPUB An understanding of the behaviour of financial assets and the evolution of economies has never been as important as today. This book looks at these complex systems from the perspective of the physicist. So called 'econophysics' and its application to finance has made great strides in recent years. Less emphasis has been placed on the broader subject of macroeconomics and many economics students are still taught traditional neo-classical economics. The reader is given a general primer in statistical physics, probability theory, and use of correlation functions. Much of the mathematics that is developed is frequently no longer included in undergraduate physics courses. The statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs is one of the oldest disciplines within physics and it can be argued that it was first applied to ensembles of molecules as opposed to being applied to social agents only by way of historical accident. The authors argue by analogy that the theory can be applied directly to economic systems comprising assemblies of interacting agents. The necessary tools and mathematics are developed in a clear and concise manner. The body of work, now termed econophysics, is then developed. The authors show where traditional methods break down and show how the probability distributions and correlation functions can be properly understood using high frequency data. Recent work by the physics community on risk and market crashes are discussed together with new work on betting markets as well as studies of speculative peaks that occur in housing markets. The second half of the book continues the empirical approach showing how by analogy with thermodynamics, a self-consistent attack can be made on macroeconomics. This leads naturally to economic production functions being equated to entropy functions - a new concept for economists. Issues relating to non-equilibrium naturally arise during the development and application of this approach to economics. These are discussed in the context of superstatistics and adiabatic processes. As a result it does seem ultimately possible to reconcile the approach with non-equilibrium systems, and the ideas are applied to study income and wealth distributions, which with their power law distribution functions have puzzled many researchers ever since Pareto discovered them over 100 years ago. This book takes a pedagogical approach to these topics and is aimed at final year undergraduate and beginning gradaute or post-graduate students in physics, economics, and business. However, the experienced researcher and quant should also find much of interest.
Download and read online The Application of Econophysics in PDF and EPUB Econophysics is a newborn field of science bridging economics and physics. A special feature of this new science is the data analysis of high-precision market data. In economics arbitrage opportunity is strictly denied; however, by observing high-precision data we can prove the existence of arbitrage opportunity. Also, financial technology neglects the possibility of market prediction; however, in this book you can find many examples of predicted events. There are other surprising findings. This volume is the proceedings of a workshop on "application of econophysics" at which leading international researchers discussed their most recent results.
Download and read online Finance in PDF and EPUB Das bewährte Lehrbuch zur Finanzwirtschaft behandelt die grundlegenden Inhalte, die in diesem Gebiet zum Standard geworden sind: Investitionsrechnung, Finanzierungsarten, Capital Budgeting, Irrelevanzthesen, Unternehmensbewertung, CAPM, Portfoliotheorie, Risikomanagement mit Terminkontrakten, Optionen unter Einschluss des Merton-Modells für das Kreditrisiko. Darüber hinausgehend werden fortgeschrittene Themen dargestellt, so die Arbitrage Pricing Theory, Leverage und die Bewertung der fremdfinanzierten Unternehmung, die Unternehmung in der finanziellen Krise, sowie, anhand von Renditeprozessen und Marktmodellen, die empirische Finance.
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Download and read online Alpha Masters in PDF and EPUB Wie gelingt es der Crème de la Crème der Hedgefonds-Manager, Jahr für Jahr die Märkte abzuhängen und Milliarden zu verdienen? Im Normalfall gibt es auf diese Fragen keine Antwort - die Herren des großen Geldes sind extrem öffentlichkeitsscheu und behalten ihre Geheimnisse für sich. Umso bemerkenswerter ist dieses Buch. Die mehrfach ausgezeichnete Autorin führte nicht nur reine Interviews - sie erhielt Zugang zu den verschwiegenen Zirkeln der Hochfinanz und somit auch Einblicke ins Privatleben und die Gedankenwelt vieler der Protagonisten. Herausgekommen ist ein packendes Werk voller Insiderwissen, wie die Märkte und ihre erfolgreichsten Akteure ticken.
Download and read online La agricultura andina ante una globalizaci n en desplome in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Animal Spirits in PDF and EPUB Viel zu lange hat die Ökonomie einen der wichtigsten Faktoren im wirtschaftlichen Agieren von Menschen vernachlässigt: die Animal Spirits, also die nicht-rationalen Aspekte unseres Handelns. Ein großer Fehler, sagen George A. Akerlof und Robert J. Shiller, dessen Folgen wir in der Wirtschaftskrise täglich neu zu spüren bekommen. Sie fordern, das Verhalten des Menschen in der Wirtschaft wieder stärker zu berücksichtigen, anstatt sich auf reinen Marktglauben zu konzentrieren. Dieses Buch ist das Ergebnis ihrer langjährigen Forschungsarbeit. Es zeigt uns, wie erfolgreiches ökonomisches Denken und Handeln in der Zukunft aussehen muss.
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Download and read online konophysik in PDF and EPUB Tobias Preis gibt einen fundierten Einblick in das noch junge interdisziplinäre Forschungsgebiet der Ökonophysik. Er entwickelt ein Orderbuchmodell zur Finanzmarktsimulation auf der Grundlage von Multiagentensystemen, mit dem sich viele empirische Eigenschaften von realen Börsendaten reproduzieren lassen.
Download and read online Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik in PDF and EPUB