Download and read online Turtles as Hopeful Monsters in PDF and EPUB Where do turtles hail from? Why and how did they acquire shells? These questions have spurred heated debate and intense research for more than two hundred years. Brilliantly weaving evidence from the latest paleontological discoveries with an accessible, incisive look at different theories of biological evolution and their proponents, Turtles as Hopeful Monsters tells the fascinating evolutionary story of the shelled reptiles. Paleontologist Olivier Rieppel traces the evolution of turtles from over 220 million years ago, examining closely the relationship of turtles to other reptiles and charting the development of the shell. Turtle issues fuel a debate between proponents of gradual evolutionary change and authors favoring change through bursts and leaps of macromutation. The first book-length popular history of its type, this indispensable resource is an engaging read for all those fascinated by this ubiquitous and uniquely shaped reptile.
Download and read online Biology of Turtles in PDF and EPUB Featuring in-depth contributions from an international team of experts, the Biology of Turtles provides the first comprehensive review of the Testudinata. The book starts with the premise that the structure of turtles is particularly interesting and best understood within the context of their development, novelty, functional diversity, and evolution. It provides a robust discussion of the development and diversity of the shell. The book also explores the turtle body plan, its physiological and ecological consequences, evolutionary novelties, and their importance. The 200 illustrations found throughout the text enhance the chapters combine with color illustrations of the development of the shell, aspects of bone structural diversity, growth, and skeletochronology, to make this book an unparalleled resource. The volume concludes with a thoughtful discussion of the more than century long debate on the origins of turtles and the reasons why our understanding of the phylogenic origins and evolution of turtles remains tentative. Currently available books on this subject are woefully out of date and no overall review of Testudinata has been undertaken...until now. Each chapter represents a milestone in synthesizing a wide range of available information on specific subjects. The book’s challenge: look both inside and outside the shell to build a clearer understanding of the diversity and evolution of turtles.
Download and read online Great Transformations in Vertebrate Evolution in PDF and EPUB How did flying birds evolve from running dinosaurs, terrestrial trotting tetrapods evolve from swimming fish, and whales return to swim in the sea? These are some of the great transformations in the 500-million-year history of vertebrate life. And with the aid of new techniques and approaches across a range of fields—work spanning multiple levels of biological organization from DNA sequences to organs and the physiology and ecology of whole organisms—we are now beginning to unravel the confounding evolutionary mysteries contained in the structure, genes, and fossil record of every living species. This book gathers a diverse team of renowned scientists to capture the excitement of these new discoveries in a collection that is both accessible to students and an important contribution to the future of its field. Marshaling a range of disciplines—from paleobiology to phylogenetics, developmental biology, ecology, and evolutionary biology—the contributors attack particular transformations in the head and neck, trunk, appendages such as fins and limbs, and the whole body, as well as offer synthetic perspectives. Illustrated throughout, Great Transformations in Vertebrate Evolution not only reveals the true origins of whales with legs, fish with elbows, wrists, and necks, and feathered dinosaurs, but also the relevance to our lives today of these extraordinary narratives of change.
Download and read online Embryonen aus der Tiefenzeit in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Morphology and Evolution of Turtles in PDF and EPUB This volume celebrates the contributions of Dr. Eugene Gaffney to the study of turtles, through a diverse and complementary collection of papers that showcases the latest research on one of the most intriguing groups of reptiles. A mix of focused and review papers deals with numerous aspects of the evolutionary history of turtles, including embryonic development, origins, early diversification, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography. Moreover it includes reports on important but poorly understood fossil turtle assemblages, provides historical perspectives on turtle research, and documents disease and variation in turtles. With its broad scope, which includes descriptions of material and new taxa from Australia, Asia, and Europe, as well as North and South America, this work will be an essential resource for anyone interested in the morphology and evolution of turtles. “This volume’s breadth of time, geography, and taxonomic coverage makes it a major contribution to the field and a ‘must have’ for all vertebrate paleontologists.”, James F. Parham, California State University, CA, USA “A comprehensive and sweeping overview of turtle evolution by the top experts in the field that will interest everyone curious about these unique reptiles.” Jason S. Anderson, University of Calgary, Canada “An invaluable addition to the literature that covers the full spectrum of approaches toward understanding the evolution of these noble creatures.” Ann C. Burke, Wesleyan University, CT , USA “A truly comprehensive volume that both the student of fossil turtles, as well as the general reader interested in these enigmatic creatures, will find fascinating.” Tyler Lyson, Yale University, CT, USA
Download and read online The Origin of Higher Taxa in PDF and EPUB In the grand sweep of evolution, the origin of radically new kinds of organisms in the fossil record is the result of a relatively simple process: natural selection marching through the ages. Or is it? Does Darwinian evolution acting over a sufficiently long period of time really offer a complete explanation, or are unusual genetic events and particular environmental and ecological circumstances also involved? With The Origin of Higher Taxa, Tom Kemp sifts through the layers of paleobiological, genetic, and ecological evidence on a quest to answer this essential, game-changing question of biology. Looking beyond the microevolutionary force of Darwinian natural selection, Kemp enters the realm of macroevolution, or evolution above the species level. From the origin of mammals to the radiation of flowering plants, these large-scale patterns—such as the rise of novel organismal design, adaptive radiations, and lineage extinctions—encompass the most significant trends and transformations in evolution. As macroevolution cannot be studied by direct observation and experiment, scientists have to rely on the outcome of evolution as evidence for the processes at work, in the form of patterns of species appearances and extinctions in a spotty fossil record, and through the nature of species extant today. Marshalling a wealth of new fossil and molecular evidence and increasingly sophisticated techniques for their study, Kemp here offers a timely and original reinterpretation of how higher taxa such as arthropods, mollusks, mammals, birds, and whales evolved—a bold new take on the history of life.
Download and read online Bones and Cartilage in PDF and EPUB Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review ever assembled on the topic. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage is developed in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone reappears when we break a leg, or even regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a tail. This book also looks at the molecules and cells that make bones and cartilages and how they differ in various parts of the body and across species. It answers such questions as “Is bone always bone? “Do bones that develop indirectly by replacing other tissues, such as marrow, tendons or ligaments, differ from one another? “Is fish bone the same as human bone? “Can sharks even make bone? and many more. * Complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage * Full of interesting and unusual facts * The only book available that integrates development and evolution of the skeleton * Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution * Written in a lively, accessible style * Extensively illustrated and referenced * Integrates analysis of differentiation, growth and patterning * Covers all the vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages * Identifies the stem cells in embryos and adults that can make skeletal tissues
Download and read online Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem in PDF and EPUB Wie groß ist eigentlich das Universum? Was wiegt unsere Erde? Und wie ist das überhaupt möglich – die Erde zu wiegen? In seinem großen Buch nimmt uns Bestsellerautor Bill Bryson mit auf eine atemberaubende Reise durch Raum und Zeit: Er erklärt uns den Himmel und die Erde, die Sterne und die Meere, und nicht zuletzt die Entstehungsgeschichte des Menschen. »Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem« ist ein ebenso fundierter und lehrreicher wie unterhaltsamer und amüsanter Ausflug in die Naturwissenschaften, mit dem Bill Bryson das scheinbar Unmögliche vollbracht hat: das Wissen von der Welt in dreißig Kapitel zu packen, die auch für den normalen Leser ohne Vorkenntnisse verständlich sind. Das ideale Buch für alle, die unser Universum und unsere Geschichte endlich verstehen möchten – und dabei auch noch Spaß haben wollen!
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Download and read online Darwin s Enigma in PDF and EPUB Evolutionists have long known that Charles Darwin's original argument against his own theory - that a lack of fossil evidence of transitional forms would reduce him to an embarrassing footnote in history - was screamingly true. No legitimate fossil evidence exists that shows one species changing into another. This startling realization led Luther Sunderland to an exhaustive search of the subject, and his findings show clearly that evolution is a theory in disarray. From his own interviews with leading evolutionists, and an examination of the fossil evidence, Sunderland shows that the Enigma of Darwin's anti-God philosophy is that the facts show it is anything but rock-solid. Before is death in 1987, Luther Sunderland had garnered the respect of creationists worldwide for his investigative writing of the evolution controversy. After obtaining an engineering degree from Penn State University, Sunderland spent 30 years developing automatic flight control systems for the General Electric Company. DARWIN'S ENIGMA remains on intensely popular work on the theory of origins.
Download and read online Der entzauberte Regenbogen in PDF and EPUB Ein Regenbogen ist in all seiner Schönheit zweifellos ein beeindruckendes, romantisches Phänomen. Wird der poetische Charakter dieser Naturerscheinung kaputtgemacht, wenn ein Wissenschaftler wie Newton daherkommt und erklärt, dass man es hier mit der Zerlegung von Sonnenlicht in einzelne Spektralfarben zu tun hat? Nein, meint der Autor. Vielmehr zeigt er in diesem hochinteressanten Buch, dass das Vorurteil von der kaltherzigen Wissenschaft unbegründet ist, ja dass das Wunderbare unserer Welt sich gerade dann offenbart, wenn es der Wissenschaft gelingt, komplexe Geheimnisse und damit die Wunder der Natur zu entschlüsseln. Sinnvolle Metaphern und Analogien, die die Fantasie beflügeln und zu über das bloße Verstehen weit hinausreichenden Bildern werden, führen zu einer Poesie in der Naturwissenschaft. Aberglaube und Geschäftemacherei mit Mystizismus prangert er hingegen an, ebenso die für die Wissenschaft schädliche "schlechte poetische Wissenschaft", zu der er übrigens interessante Beispiele aus seinem Fachgebiet, der Evolutionsforschung, anführt. (2)
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Download and read online alias Grace in PDF and EPUB Toronto, 1843: Das junge Dienstmädchen Grace wird mit sechzehn des Doppelmordes an ihren Arbeitgebern schuldig gesprochen. In letzter Sekunde wandelt das Gericht ihr Todesurteil in eine lebenslange Gefängnisstrafe um. Sie verbringt Jahre hinter Gittern, bis man sie schließlich entlässt. Im Haushalt des Anstaltdirektors begegnet sie dem Nervenarzt Simon, der ihrer Geschichte auf den Grund gehen will: Ist Grace eine gemeingefährliche Verbrecherin oder unschuldig? Margaret Atwood hat einen Roman von hypnotischer Spannung geschrieben, der die Geschichte einer realen Gestalt, einer der berüchtigtsten Frauen Kanadas erzählt.
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