Competing with the Soviets

Filename: competing-with-the-soviets.pdf
ISBN: 9781421409016
Release Date: 2012-11-16
Number of pages: 176
Author: Audra J. Wolfe
Publisher: JHU Press

Download and read online Competing with the Soviets in PDF and EPUB For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University

Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond

Filename: science-studies-during-the-cold-war-and-beyond.pdf
ISBN: 9781137559432
Release Date: 2016-09-24
Number of pages: 328
Author: Elena Aronova
Publisher: Springer

Download and read online Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond in PDF and EPUB This book examines the ways in which studies of science intertwined with Cold War politics, in both familiar and less familiar “battlefields” of the Cold War. Taken together, the essays highlight two primary roles for science studies as a new field of expertise institutionalized during the Cold War in different political regimes. Firstly, science studies played a political role in cultural Cold War in sustaining as well as destabilizing political ideologies in different political and national contexts. Secondly, it was an instrument of science policies in the early Cold War: the studies of science were promoted as the underpinning for the national policies framed with regard to both global geopolitics and local national priorities. As this book demonstrates, however, the wider we cast our net, extending our histories beyond the more researched developments in the Anglophone West, the more complex and ambivalent both the “science studies” and “the Cold War” become outside these more familiar spaces. The national stories collected in this book may appear incommensurable with what we know as science studies today, but these stories present a vantage point from which to pluralize some of the visions that were constitutive to the construction of “Cold War” as a juxtaposition of the liberal democracies in the “West” and the communist “East.”

Sharing Knowledge Shaping Europe

Filename: sharing-knowledge-shaping-europe.pdf
ISBN: 9780262034777
Release Date: 2016-07-22
Number of pages: 240
Author: John Krige
Publisher: MIT Press

Download and read online Sharing Knowledge Shaping Europe in PDF and EPUB How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

The New Math

Filename: the-new-math.pdf
ISBN: 9780226185019
Release Date: 2014-12-04
Number of pages: 224
Author: Christopher J. Phillips
Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Download and read online The New Math in PDF and EPUB An era of sweeping cultural change in America, the postwar years saw the rise of beatniks and hippies, the birth of feminism, and the release of the first video game. It was also the era of new math. Introduced to US schools in the late 1950s and 1960s, the new math was a curricular answer to Cold War fears of American intellectual inadequacy. In the age of Sputnik and increasingly sophisticated technological systems and machines, math class came to be viewed as a crucial component of the education of intelligent, virtuous citizens who would be able to compete on a global scale. In this history, Christopher J. Phillips examines the rise and fall of the new math as a marker of the period’s political and social ferment. Neither the new math curriculum designers nor its diverse legions of supporters concentrated on whether the new math would improve students’ calculation ability. Rather, they felt the new math would train children to think in the right way, instilling in students a set of mental habits that might better prepare them to be citizens of modern society—a world of complex challenges, rapid technological change, and unforeseeable futures. While Phillips grounds his argument in shifting perceptions of intellectual discipline and the underlying nature of mathematical knowledge, he also touches on long-standing debates over the place and relevance of mathematics in liberal education. And in so doing, he explores the essence of what it means to be an intelligent American—by the numbers.

Historical Abstracts

Filename: historical-abstracts.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015073568696
Release Date: 1997
Number of pages:

Download and read online Historical Abstracts in PDF and EPUB

Berlin 1961

Filename: berlin-1961.pdf
ISBN: 9783641068950
Release Date: 2011-11-10
Number of pages: 672
Author: Frederick Kempe
Publisher: Siedler Verlag

Download and read online Berlin 1961 in PDF and EPUB Das Jahr, in dem die Mauer gebaut wurde 1961, der Höhepunkt der sogenannten Berlin-Krise, die Welt befindet sich am Rande eines Atomkriegs. Frederick Kempe erzählt auf der Basis neu zugänglicher Dokumente die atemberaubende Geschichte dieses Jahres, in dem Berlin der »gefährlichste Ort der Welt« war, wie Chruschtschow meinte. Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen der treibenden Mächte, eine faszinierende Darstellung der wichtigsten Protagonisten jener Zeit. Im Juni 1961 erneuerte der sowjetische Regierungschef Nikita Chruschtschow sein Berlin-Ultimatum und forderte unter anderem den Abzug der westalliierten Truppen aus der Stadt. Die USA unter ihrem Präsidenten Kennedy hielten diesen Forderungen eigene Bedingungen entgegen. Mit Walter Ulbricht auf der einen und Konrad Adenauer auf der anderen Seite standen sich auch die deutschen Staatschefs feindselig gegenüber und trugen zur Verschärfung der politischen Lage bei. In den folgenden Wochen und Monaten spitzte sich die Situation extrem zu, die Massenflucht aus der DDR nahm immer dramatischere Ausmaße an. Am 13. August schließlich wurde die Mauer durch Berlin gebaut, Ende Oktober richteten sowjetische und amerikanische Soldaten am Checkpoint Charlie ihre Panzer aufeinander. In diesem Moment war Berlin zur weltpolitischen Arena geworden, aus dem Kalten Krieg drohte ein heißer zu werden.

The Cybernetics Moment

Filename: the-cybernetics-moment.pdf
ISBN: 9781421416717
Release Date: 2015-06-04
Number of pages: 352
Author: Ronald R. Kline
Publisher: JHU Press

Download and read online The Cybernetics Moment in PDF and EPUB Cybernetics—the science of communication and control as it applies to machines and to humans—originates from efforts during World War II to build automatic anti-aircraft systems. Following the war, this science extended beyond military needs to examine all systems that rely on information and feedback, from the level of the cell to that of society. In The Cybernetics Moment, Ronald R. Kline, a senior historian of technology, examines the intellectual and cultural history of cybernetics and information theory, whose language of "information," "feedback," and "control" transformed the idiom of the sciences, hastened the development of information technologies, and laid the conceptual foundation for what we now call the Information Age. Kline argues that, for about twenty years after 1950, the growth of cybernetics and information theory and ever-more-powerful computers produced a utopian information narrative—an enthusiasm for information science that influenced natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, humanists, policymakers, public intellectuals, and journalists, all of whom struggled to come to grips with new relationships between humans and intelligent machines. Kline traces the relationship between the invention of computers and communication systems and the rise, decline, and transformation of cybernetics by analyzing the lives and work of such notables as Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon, Warren McCulloch, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, and Herbert Simon. Ultimately, he reveals the crucial role played by the cybernetics moment—when cybernetics and information theory were seen as universal sciences—in setting the stage for our current preoccupation with information technologies.

Arms Races in International Politics

Filename: arms-races-in-international-politics.pdf
ISBN: 9780191054204
Release Date: 2016-01-14
Number of pages: 304
Author: Thomas Mahnken
Publisher: Oxford University Press

Download and read online Arms Races in International Politics in PDF and EPUB This volume provides the first comprehensive history of the arms racing phenomenon in modern international politics, drawing both on theoretical approaches and on the latest historical research. Written by an international team of specialists, it is divided into four sections: before 1914; the inter-war years; the Cold War; and extra-European and post-Cold War arms races. Twelve case studies examine land and naval armaments before the First World War; air, land, and naval competition during the 1920s and 1930s; and nuclear as well as conventional weapons since 1945. Armaments policies are placed within the context of technological development, international politics and diplomacy, and social politics and economics. An extended general introduction and conclusion and introductions to each section provide coherence between the specialized chapters and draw out wider implications for policymakers and for political scientists. Arms Races in International Politics addresses two key questions: what causes arms races, and what is the connection between arms races and the outbreak of wars?

Studien zum Kalten Krieg

Filename: studien-zum-kalten-krieg.pdf
ISBN: 386854237X
Release Date: 2006
Number of pages:

Download and read online Studien zum Kalten Krieg in PDF and EPUB

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Filename: bulletin-of-the-atomic-scientists.pdf
Release Date: 1970-06
Number of pages: 116

Download and read online Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists in PDF and EPUB The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

Air University review

Filename: air-university-review.pdf
ISBN: UIUC:30112105112368
Release Date: 1983-09
Number of pages:
Author: Air University (U.S.)

Download and read online Air University review in PDF and EPUB

Kulturgeschichte des Sports

Filename: kulturgeschichte-des-sports.pdf
ISBN: 9783406632068
Release Date: 2012-07-09
Number of pages: 494
Author: Wolfgang Behringer
Publisher: C.H.Beck

Download and read online Kulturgeschichte des Sports in PDF and EPUB In diesem unterhaltsamen Buch beschreibt Wolfgang Behringer, wie Sport über 3000 Jahre wurde, was er heute ist, wann wer welche Sportarten ausübte und warum, wie es zum Aufstieg des Fußballs kam und wie schon in der Antike Sport und Politik sich wechselseitig beeinflussten. Diese Kulturgeschichte wird Sportmuffeln – no sports! – wie Sportfans gleichermaßen verblüffende Einsichten liefern und zeigt den menschlichen Bewegungsdrang in einem neuen Licht. 776 v. Chr. wurden in Olympia die ersten panhellenischen Spiele angehalten, eine Erfolgsgeschichte, bis sie 393 n. Chr. verboten wurden. Aber warum ließ man sie nicht mehr zu? Und wie kam es, dass sie nach 1500 Jahren wieder belebt wurden und warum sprechen wir von Spielen und nicht von Sport? Wolfgang Behringer eröffnet in seiner Kulturgeschichte neue Einblicke in die Geschichte des Sports. Er zeigt uns den jungen Kaiser Karl V. als begeisterten Tennisspieler, Heinrich VIII. von England als Sportfanatiker und den Begründer der modernen Physik, Isaac Newton, als aktiven Boxer. Die Kultur der Renaissance brachte den Bau großer Sportanlagen, denn im Florenz der Medici zog der Calcio, der Fußball, zigtausende Schaulustige an. In diesem Buch wird darüber hinaus höchst unterhaltsam und historisch fundiert diskutiert, was Sport überhaupt ist. Warum gehört Turmspringen dazu, Sackhüpfen aber nicht? Wie steht es mit den Stierkämpfen oder dem Motorsport? Wie kam es zum Aufstieg des Fußballs und wie beeinflussen sich Sport und Politik?

Das Gespaltene Land

Filename: das-gespaltene-land.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015032738919
Release Date: 1993
Number of pages: 536
Author: Christoph Klessmann

Download and read online Das Gespaltene Land in PDF and EPUB

Library Journal

Filename: library-journal.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015082964647
Release Date: 1999
Number of pages:

Download and read online Library Journal in PDF and EPUB Includes, beginning Sept. 15, 1954 (and on the 15th of each month, Sept.-May) a special section: School library journal, ISSN 0000-0035, (called Junior libraries, 1954-May 1961). Also issued separately.

Chinese American Forum

Filename: chinese-american-forum.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015074906960
Release Date: 1989
Number of pages:

Download and read online Chinese American Forum in PDF and EPUB