Download and read online A Primer of Ecological Statistics in PDF and EPUB This book takes a broad-based approach that emphasizes the historical, cultural, political, religious, social, and economic factors that underlie an understanding of both global and domestic terrorism. This unique text-reader combines original essays with the best of the existing literature on terrorism. Each chapter of this text begins with an overview essay written by the authors, followed by two relevant and engaging articles culled from a wide variety of popular, academic, and governmental sources. This is the only major terrorism text to incorporate readings from top terrorism experts into a traditional textbook format, allowing readers to deepen their understanding of each aspect of terrorism.
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Download and read online Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R Second Edition in PDF and EPUB Emphasizing the inductive nature of statistical thinking, Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition, connects applied statistics to the environmental and ecological fields. Using examples from published works in the ecological and environmental literature, the book explains the approach to solving a statistical problem, covering model specification, parameter estimation, and model evaluation. It includes many examples to illustrate the statistical methods and presents R code for their implementation. The emphasis is on model interpretation and assessment, and using several core examples throughout the book, the author illustrates the iterative nature of statistical inference. The book starts with a description of commonly used statistical assumptions and exploratory data analysis tools for the verification of these assumptions. It then focuses on the process of building suitable statistical models, including linear and nonlinear models, classification and regression trees, generalized linear models, and multilevel models. It also discusses the use of simulation for model checking, and provides tools for a critical assessment of the developed models. The second edition also includes a complete critique of a threshold model. Environmental and Ecological Statistics with R, Second Edition focuses on statistical modeling and data analysis for environmental and ecological problems. By guiding readers through the process of scientific problem solving and statistical model development, it eases the transition from scientific hypothesis to statistical model.
Download and read online An Integrated Approach to Environmental Management in PDF and EPUB Covers the most recent topics in the field of environmental management and provides a broad focus on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of environmental management Provides an up-to-date survey of the field from the perspective of different disciplines Covers the topic of environmental management from multiple perspectives, namely, natural sciences, engineering, business, social sciences, and methods and tools perspectives Combines both academic rigor and practical approach through literature reviews and theories and examples and case studies from diverse geographic areas and policy domains Explores local and global issues of environmental management and analyzes the role of various contributors in the environmental management process Chapter contents are appropriately demonstrated with numerous pictures, charts, graphs, and tables, and accompanied by a detailed reference list for further readings
Download and read online Stepping in the Same River Twice in PDF and EPUB An international team of biologists, philosophers, and historians of science explores the critically important process of replication in biological and biomedical research Without replication, the trustworthiness of scientific research remains in doubt. Although replication is increasingly recognized as a central problem in many scientific disciplines, repeating the same scientific observations of experiments or reproducing the same set of analyses from existing data is remarkably difficult. In this important volume, an international team of biologists, philosophers, and historians of science addresses challenges and solutions for valid replication of research in medicine, ecology, natural history, agriculture, physiology, and computer science. After the introduction to important concepts and historical background, the book offers paired chapters that provide theoretical overviews followed by detailed case studies. These studies range widely in topics, from infectious-diseases and environmental monitoring to museum collections, meta-analysis, bioinformatics, and more. The closing chapters explicate and quantify problems in the case studies, and the volume concludes with important recommendations for best practices.
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Download and read online Math and Bio 2010 in PDF and EPUB Math & Bio 2010: Linking Undergraduate Disciplines envisages a new educational paradigm in which the disciplines of mathematics and biology, currently quite separate, will be productively linked in the undergraduate science programs of the 21st century. As a science, biology depends increasingly on data, algorithms, and models; in virtually every respect, it is becoming more quantitative, more computational, and more mathematical. While these trends are related, they are not the same; they represent, rather, three different perspectives on what many are calling the "new biology." All three methods---quantitative, computational, mathematical---are spreading across the entire landscape of biological science from molecular to cellular, organismic and ecological. The aim of this volume is to alert members of both communities---biological and mathematical---to the expanding and exciting challenges of interdisciplinary work in these fields.
Download and read online A Primer in Biological Data Analysis and Visualization Using R in PDF and EPUB R is a popular programming language that statisticians use to perform a variety of statistical computing tasks. Rooted in Gregg Hartvigsen's extensive experience teaching biology, this text is an engaging, practical, and lab-oriented introduction to R for students in the life sciences. Underscoring the importance of R and RStudio to the organization, computation, and visualization of biological statistics and data, Hartvigsen guides readers through the processes of entering data into R, working with data in R, and using R to express data in histograms, boxplots, barplots, scatterplots, before/after line plots, pie charts, and graphs. He covers data normality, outliers, and nonnormal data and examines frequently used statistical tests with one value and one sample; paired samples; more than two samples across a single factor; correlation; and linear regression. The volume also includes a section on advanced procedures and a final chapter on possible extensions into programming, featuring a discussion of algorithms, the art of looping, and combining programming and output.
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Download and read online Ecological Statistics in PDF and EPUB The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.
Download and read online Statistical Ecology in PDF and EPUB Ecological community data. Spatial pattern analysis. Species-abundance relations. Species affinity. Community classification. Community ordination. Community interpretation.
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